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Types of Library Material Sources, Methods of Reviewing, and Collecting Study Results

This description of how to review library materials is not only useful for (prospective) researchers who will prepare research proposals, but also for researchers who will and are currently compiling reports on their research results. Therefore, the form of the description is general, intended for researchers in general, not only prospective researchers in general, not only prospective researchers. Although it seems the same for both proposal writers and research report writers, it is necessary to point out that there are slight differences between the two.

The researcher of the research proposal examines the sources to obtain as general and comprehensive knowledge as possible (insight) because they will only choose the problem to be worked on. The researcher's report compiler in reviewing library materials has been led to his attention by the problem he is currently working on, namely the breakdown of research problems that have been formulated and data have been sought.

For the description of how to study library materials to be sorted and easy to understand, first, various types of library material sources are presented, ways to study and collect study results, followed by how to put them in writing.

Types of Library Material Sources, Methods of Reviewing, and Collecting Study Results
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1. Type of Library Material Source

To obtain information about the theory and research results, (prospective) researchers can examine various sources that can be classified into several types according to form and content.

a. Classification by shape

It is distinguished from written sources (printed materials which are usually referred to as documents) and non-written sources (non-printed materials).

Written sources: including diaries, newspapers, magazines, meeting minutes, inventory books, diplomas, knowledge books, decision letters, and others which can generally be distinguished from handwritten and unwritten materials. printed or published by the publisher, whether publicly published or not. So the meaning of "printed" is not only in the form of printed materials as interpreted by most people or printed results. By the publisher but all goods in the form of writing.

Material sources that are not written: are all forms of non-written sources, including sound recordings, objects from ancient relics (reliefs, inscriptions, manuscripts, etc.), films, slides, and others.

b. Classification by content

Distinguished in primary and secondary sources.

Primary sources are sources of materials or documents that are presented or described themselves by people or parties who were present at the time the events described were taking place so that they can be used as witnesses. Including primary sources, for example, diaries, meeting minutes, manuscripts, end-of-office memorandums, and so on that come "from first hand". In historical research, the position of the primary source is very important because it is from this primary source that the authenticity and purity of the contents of the primary source are more reliable than that of secondary sources.

Secondary sources are sources of study material described by non-people who also experienced or were present at the time the incident took place.

Included in the classification of secondary sources include:

Publication materials are written by people or parties who are not directly involved in the events being told. Textbooks (textbooks) are the best example of this secondary source.

If the author of the book conveys a collection of theories and laws that have been written in previous books, plus a collection of information on research results collected from research report books and journals, it is clear that this textbook is a secondary source. However, if in the article the author inserts a little or most of the results of the research that he did himself, then the portion or part that tells the experience and results of his research is still referred to as the primary source. However, it should be noted that if from this research report the author adds a review or interpretation of the research results accompanied by comparisons of results from other studies, then this section of the review and interpretation is a secondary source.

Although according to the quality of authenticity, this secondary source is inferior to the primary source, its position is very important because it summarizes a lot of primary source material in a publication. Thus, research does not need to study a lot of primary sources. Another advantage is that in this publication the author has prepared in such a way that it becomes the material for an intense study of a problem, which the researcher may not be able to produce such a good conclusion.

In addition to being familiar with the advantages that have been mentioned, researchers must also recognize the weaknesses of secondary sources due to the author's freedom to provide reviews or interpretations of the complications of primary source material, it is not impossible if the authors have included their own opinions, ideas or thoughts. In this case, the position of the secondary sources is very difficult to predict to what extent their authenticity can be measured. Therefore, researchers are still advised to take more primary sources than secondary sources.

2. How to Review and Collect Study Results

From the experience of guiding students, it is known that the methods taken and the steps taken by those who compose the thesis in reviewing and compiling the results of the literature review are generally not effective. It is not infrequently found that among these students they are continuing to "read and read" for a long time. When they find out that the IP obtained is sufficient and fulfills the requirements to take the thesis route, they are often confused about their choice of whether to take the thesis or non-thesis route. The thesis path usually has to be patient.

Writing a script does take a long time. If they have to take the non-thesis route, the public's appreciation for this group of graduates will be "less". Writing a thesis is indeed "difficult" for those who do not understand how to do research. However, for those who understand how to step by step should be passed, it is not as difficult as people imagine.

Conducting a review of library materials is an exciting activity. By reading the theories of experts, reading reports on the results of our research can be "drowned" in the mind of the author or researcher. If we do this continuously (even if only for a short time but often) we will usually be attracted to something that is still an "obstacle" in our hearts. Well, if we have found a problem that deserves to be a topic of research problems.

Sometimes in reading library materials we find a lot of interesting things. I think we will always remember this interesting thing because we are very impressed by it. But soon we can forget because our minds are filled with all kinds of new things. Problems that initially seem interesting can become something that is just "ordinary". We have lost the problem! This is what happened to students who were in the "search for titles" stage, which was usually judged as "title-seeking students" who never finished.

So that students can avoid the status of title-seeking students as exemplified, they must know what strategies to take.

The advice that can be given is as follows:

1. Students should prepare several cards made of colorful manila paper measuring approximately 10 x 15 centimeters. These cards are provided to write down the results of the study, and are commonly referred to as “bibliographic cards” or “citation cards”.

(For scientists and research enthusiasts, even though they are not researching, it is also best to always be ready with these literature review cards to stock up maybe at some point in time if from reading they find something good and will be recorded as a treasury of knowledge and who knows that next time it will be. very useful for research, making papers and so on).

2. Group the colored cards according to the existing color types. The grouping of color cards is intended to facilitate research in determining which cards will be used to record the results of their studies according to the subject matter of variables. Maybe one color will be used to write down two or three variables if the number of card colors is not sufficient for the existing variables or subject matter.

The first two steps are still in the preparation stage for the literature review. The basic and important work has not yet begun.

a. Conduct identification of variables, sub-variables, or subject matter contained in the research title.

Borg and Gall argue that in this step the researcher does not identify the variables, sub-variables, or subject matter contained in the research title (Borg and Gall, 1979; 103). The author argues that perhaps what is meant by Borg and Gall by "keywords" is the same as what was mentioned above with "variables or sub-variables".

Whatever the meaning of the term, the important thing is that the researcher understands what must be the basis for the main problem being studied.

3. Collect sources of study 

Material that roughly contain a description of the variables, sub-variables, or main issues that will be sought for supporting materials. In this example, of course, the researcher had previously conducted a "preliminary study", for example in the form of casual reading, which usually gave certain signs to the passages to be quoted.

An a. When the time comes, the researcher writes down the results of the study (in the form of quotes) on the cards provided. The researcher prepared a special time to write on the cards according to the color classification of the cards.

That's articles about Types of Library Material Sources, How to Study, and Collect Study Results. Hopefully, this article is useful.

References:
1. Griffin, Em. 1991. A First Look at Communication Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill
2. Sendjaja, Sasa Djuarsa, 1993. Communication Theory, Jakarta: Univ. Open
3. Mulyana, Deddy. 2001. Communication Science An Introduction
4. Littlejohn, Stephen, 1996, Theories of Human Communication. Wadsworth Publishing Company Inc. Belmont