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Quantitative Research Design and Format and Its Elements

Research design is a combination or elaboration of research objectives and research elements, or a combination of one design with another design. While the research model is a methodological abstraction that is considered to represent a certain framework of thinking about the research target, both elements, characteristics, properties of objects, relationships between concepts or variables, as well as "something" that can be predicted to occur.

Format of quantitative research and its elements, for example:
  1. Research Title
  2. Background
  3. Formulation of the problem
  4. Research Objectives and Uses
    a. Research purposes
    b. Research Use
  5. Thinking Framework (Theoretical Framework)
  6. Hypothesis (if any)
  7. Research methodology :
    a. Research type/nature
    b. Research methods
    c. Population and sample
    d. Concept Operation
    e. Data Collection Techniques
    f. Data collection and data tabulation
    g. Data analysis
  8. Report writing

A brief description:

1. Research Title

The title should be short, clear, concise, logical, describe the content, contain the variables studied, the type/type of method can be known if the title is more than 12 words or more, a sub-heading can be made, etc. In quantitative research, whether what we are going to research can be conceptualized, is there no difficulty in theoretical reference, predicting various consequences related to the adequacy of time, cost, effort, there is/isn't a difficulty in accessing data, if it involves an institution it is permissible not to conduct research at the institution, etc.

2. Problem Background

The background contains the phenomena/symptoms related to the object under study. What are the symptoms? What is the relationship or influence between the symptoms that can be captured, and what does it look like? What are the elements, characteristics, and properties (characteristics) of the object under study? Why take the object of research and not another object? Why is that part of the object interesting compared to other parts of the object? These symptoms can be supported by data or the results of other people's research. What are the circumstances and conditions that lead to such problems? Why research in that place-not elsewhere? What is being researched or the subject matter? Why is the subject matter interesting/worthy of research compared to other issues? and as.

3. Problem Formulation / Main Problem

The problem is the gap between expectations (das Sollen) and reality (das science), the gap between plans and results, prevailing norms, and the reality of everyday life, and this problem is the answer/solution that will be sought. Based on the main problem, research questions are arranged systematically, problem formulation. Whereas qualitative research it is better known as the research focus (the research focus can be one with the formulation of the problem, or separately the formulation of the problem is put forward and the focus of the research is put forward).

Quantitative Research Design and Format and Its Elements
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In a study, problematic is the key to its activities. It is from this research problem that the research objectives, hypotheses, population and sample, and techniques for collecting and analyzing data are determined. Research problems are questions that are used as milestones for researchers to expressly express problems, first, they must provide boundaries.

The definition of definition is part of a research proposal or report where the researcher provides explanations to people about matters relating to their research activities. The importance of researchers explaining this understanding is so that other people with an interest in the research have the same perception as the researcher.

While the problem limits, to get to this stage, the researcher must first try to list as many problems as possible that are obstacles in his mind, which if possible answers can be found through research activities to be carried out. This stage is called the problem identification stage. Of the many problems that have been successfully listed or identified, by adjusting to the limitations they have, the researcher only selects one or several problems that are considered important and useful to find solutions.

Order, the research stages in selecting research problems are as follows:
  1. The researcher felt there was a problem in his mind. Researchers feel there is a problem that needs to be solved through research.
  2. The researcher tries to list as many problems as possible that can be answered through research (problem identification).
  3. The researcher chooses one or more problems to be answered through his research (problem limitation).
The main problem contains the substance of the problem to be studied. The formulation of the problem helps the reader to know clearly / easily, the problem that is currently the attention of the researcher. Formulate the problem by breaking it down into main questions to which answers will be sought. Some of the things below explain this:

1. It is a problem in the field of Communication Science concerning the fields of Public Relations, Broadcasting, Marketing Communication, and Visual Communication. The following are some examples of problems that are 'usually' reflected in the “Title/Topic of Thesis Problem”:

  • Mass Media control function
  • Orientational gratification to global TV broadcast viewers (Study of Uses and Gratification of CNN Audience Audience in Jakarta)
Public Relations:
  • Use of Special Events in enhancing the company's image (Panasonic Gobel case).
  • Bali Bombing PR crisis management on foreign tourists
  • The relationship between attractive messages and attitude change (experimental study of political party campaign advertisements in the 2004 election)
  • Discourse Analysis of the PDI-P party campaign advertisements in the 2004 General Election.
2. Problems are formulated and ultimately focused on a “core problem”. The core of the problem is usually formulated in the form of "statements/questions".

See the following example:
  • How does Kompasiana express its social control based on the current press system?
  • Is there a relationship between characteristics and media exposure with motivation and orientational gratification in CNN viewers?
  • How did the Deparsenibud handle the Bali Bombing crisis management?
  • How can messages containing attractive elements change attitudes based on their belief and evaluation factors in political party campaign advertisements?
  • How about the Democratic Party's campaign ad discourse?
In essence, the researcher will carry out the desire to research because he feels he has a "problematic block", for that several thing must be considered:
  1. The problem must be following the field of science that has been or is being experienced. In scientific knowledge, there is a map of expertise (expertise). To be able to carry out research activities properly, one must master two things: namely the material (substance) of the field of science to be researched and the technique or methodology to carry out research properly and correctly. By choosing a research problem that is by the field of science involved, at least one of the requirements for researchers has been fulfilled.
  2. The problems chosen must be by the interests of prospective researchers. Research activities start from preparing proposals that require no small amount of precision, accuracy, and patience from the perpetrators.
  3. The selected problem must be important in the sense of having broad benefits. In general, research activities require a lot of energy, thought, cost, and time from researchers. Therefore the results must be adequate, at least must be balanced with all the things that have been sacrificed for it.
  4. Research problems must be handled by researchers. Many of the prospective researchers wish to choose problems that are in their fields and attract the attention of these researchers.
An important thing in research is determining the problem.

The problem is the most difficult stage, so it can interfere with the development of research activities to be carried out.

1. Some Problem Characteristics:
  1. Interesting topic/title selection
  2. Problem-solving should be useful to people with an interest in a particular field.
  3. The problem raised is something new.
  4. Inviting more complex drafts.
  5. Can be completed at the desired time.
  6. Not against morals.
2. Skills in identifying problems:
  1. Read the literature related to the field to be researched and be critical.
  2. Attend professional lectures/lectures.
  3. Conduct observations/events that are around us.
  4. Thinking about research possibilities with lecture topics/materials.
  5. Conduct small research and record the results or findings obtained.
  6. Organize research with an emphasis on content and methodology.
  7. Visit various libraries for topics to be researched.
  8. Subscribe to journals/magazines related to the researched field.
  9. Collect materials related to the research area.

3. Research Objectives

From the core of the problem, it is then operationalized or described in "Research Objectives" which explicitly provides an overview of the aspects to be explored in the research.

If the problem statement is still an abstraction, then the research objective is more operational and measurable.

Research Objectives It is not uncommon for research purposes and research objectives to be considered the same. In summary, the research intent is "what the researcher wants to know", while the research objective is "what you want to get after doing the research", what kind of problem-solving you want to get.

For Example: knowing factors, describing symptoms, comparing averages, knowing relationships, testing/explaining effects, evaluating, comparing effects, finding ways,... and so on, for qualitative research to find models/patterns, find substantive theories, obtain understanding .. and so on.

4. Research Benefits

The benefits of research are basic information about something that is mentioned in the research objectives, not a physical product or part of the research activity itself. Meanwhile, those who are categorized as parties who take advantage of research results are parties that can be clearly stated.

The research uses are related to the use of scientific development (Communication Science, Public Relations, Marcom, etc.) and other practical uses (For example companies, Government Public Relations, public relations practitioners, subsequent researchers, etc.)

Beer, Jennifer, Intercultural Communication at Work, Washington, 1997.
Mulyana, Deddy and Jalaluddin Rakhmat, Intercultural Communication, Rosdakarya Youth, Bandung, 2003.
Rumondor, Alex, et al, Intercultural Communication, Open University, Jakarta, 1996. Mulyana, Deddy, Effective Communication; A Cross-cultural Approach, Youth Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2004.