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Memory and Thinking in Psychology of Intrapersonal Communication

In intrapersonal communication, memory plays an important role in influencing both perception and thinking. Memory is a highly structured system, which enables organisms to record facts about the world and use their knowledge to guide their behavior. While thinking we involve all the processes we call sensation, perception, and memory. Through this article, it is expected to be able to understand intrapersonal communication "memory and thinking"


In intrapersonal communication, memory plays an important role in influencing both perception (by providing a frame of reference) and thinking. Studying memory leads us to cognitive psychology, especially to the human model as an information processor. Robert Craig even asked communication experts to study cognitive psychology to find new ways of analyzing messages and processing messages. The greatest contribution of cognitive psychology is to uncover the veil of memory.

Then, what is memory? Memory is a highly structured system that enables organisms to record facts about the world and use this knowledge to guide their behavior.

What is captured by the human senses (sensation) is then converted into information (perception) which is then stored in memory. Memory is a highly structured system that allows organisms to record facts about the world and use them to guide their behavior. One of the strengths of humans is their ability to store large amounts of information, for a long time and to be able to recall them.

Memory and Thinking in Psychology of Intrapersonal Communication
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3 Processes Passed by Memory

a. Recording (called encoding)

Is the recording of information through sensory receptors and internal nervous circuits.

b. Storage ( storage )

It is to determine how long the information is with us, in what form, and where, the storage can be active or passive. Actively when we add additional information, we fill in the incomplete information with our conclusions (this is how rumors spread more than the original volume). Passively occurs without addition.

c. Summons (retrieval)

In everyday language, remembering again is using stored information.

Types of Memory

a. Reminder (Recall)

It is an active process to reproduce facts and
information verbatim (word for word) without clear instructions. For example: if you are asked what type of marine fish is a mammal? You will reply with a reminder stored in memory.

b. Recognition

It's a little hard to remember some facts at heart, it's easier to get to know them again. For example: What is the name of the current Prime Minister? This means that two possible answers are given, so the answer is not because of a reminder but as an introduction to the President.

c. Learning Again (Relearning)

This means mastering the lessons that have been learned, including memory work. For example, being told to memorize the previous lesson. So people who have learned will easily remember it compared to people who are just starting to learn.

d. Redintegration (Redintegration)

It is reconstructing the entire past from one small memory clue. For example, on holidays, we will remember the smell, atmosphere, color, etc., this sometimes makes us sad or happy when there are these memories.


In thinking, we involve all the processes mentioned above, namely sensation, perception, and memory. For example, in working on a math problem, first, we will capture writing and pictures (sensation), we read and try to understand what is being asked (perception), at the time of dismantling the memory to understand what is called a straight line, a quadrilateral and possible problems that arise. same past (memory).

According to Petty and Cacioppo, humans want to always have the right attitude or view on all things. According to them, although we are not always able to use reason or logic well. But humans tend to always be serious in seeking the truth. The problem is, every day we are always crammed with various kinds of information that attacks us repeatedly. Every piece of information seeks to grab our attention. We are exposed to so many messages that are always trying to persuade us, if we contain them all then our brain will experience an information overload. Therefore, so that the brain does not overload us to choose to be selective with the information received and only pay attention and pay attention to certain messages that we consider important.

Three kinds of thinking

a. Deductive Thinking

Is to conclude from two statements, the first is a general statement on specific matters, in logic is called a syllogism. Example: All humans will die. Scrorates are human, so scrorates will die.

b. Inductive Thinking

It is thinking starting from the particulars and taking general conclusions and we make generalizations.

Example: I met Ika, a student at FIKOM. He's good at talking. I met Riko, Yeni, and Hamdan, all of them are FIKOM students and are good at talking. I conclude that FIKOM students are good at talking.

c. Evaluative Thinking

It is critical thinking, judging whether or not an idea is right or wrong. In evaluative thinking we can delete or add ideas, we judge according to certain criteria.

Decision Making

One of the functions of thinking is to make decisions. Throughout life, we ​​have to make decisions. Because some of those decisions determine our future. The decisions we make vary. But there are general signs:
  1. Decisions are the result of thinking, the result of intellectual effort.
  2. Decisions always involve the choice of various alternatives
  3. Decisions always involve concrete actions, although their implementation may be delayed or forgotten.

Factors that affect the problem-solving process

Problem-solving is influenced by situational and personal factors. Situational factors occur, for example, in the stimulus that causes the problem. The influence of biological and sociopsychological factors on the problem-solving process. For example :
  1. Motivation, Low motivation is more distracting. High motivation limits flexibility. Children who are too excited to see a birthday present, often cannot open the gift ribbon.
  2. Wrong beliefs and attitudes, Wrong assumptions can lead us astray. If we believe that happiness can be obtained by material wealth, we will have difficulty when we solve our inner sufferings.
  3. Habits, Tendency to maintain certain patterns of thinking, or for example to see problems from one side only, or excessive and uncritical trust in the opinions of authorities, hinder efficient problem-solving.
  4. Emotions, In dealing with various situations, we often unconsciously get involved emotionally. Emotions color the way we think. We never really think objectively.

Creative Thinking (Creative Thinking).

What is creative thinking?

Creative thinking according to James C. Coleman and Constance L. Hammen, is "thinking which produces new methods, new concepts, new understanding, innovations, new work of art." Thoughts that produce new methods, new concepts, new understandings, new invasions, and new works of art.

Creative thinking must meet three conditions:
  1. Creativity involves new, or statistically very rare, responses or ideas. But mixing alone is not enough.
  2. Creativity is being able to solve problems realistically.
  3. Creativity is an attempt to maintain original insight, and assess and develop it as best as possible.

When people think creatively, the way of thinking is used in analogical thinking. Guilford distinguishes between creative and uncreative thinking with the concept of convergent and divergent. Guilford said creative people are characterized by divergent thinking. Namely, trying to generate some possible answers. Convergent thinking is closely related to intelligence, while divergent creativity. Divergent thinking can be measured by fluency, flexibility, and originality.

a. Creative Thinking Process

Psychologists mention five stages of creative thinking:
  1. Orientation: The problem is formulated, and aspects of the problem are identified.
  2. Preparation: The mind tries to gather as much information as is relevant to the problem.
  3. Incubation: The mind rests for a while when various solutions come to a dead end. At this stage, the problem-solving process continues in our subconscious.
  4. Illumination: The Incubation Period ends when the thinker gains some kind of inspiration, a series of insights that solves a problem. This gives rise to Aha Erlebnis.
  5. Verification: The final stage is to test and critically assess the problem solving proposed in the fourth stage.

b. Factors Influencing Creative Thinking

Creative thinking thrives when it is supported by personal and situational factors. According to Coleman and Hammen, the factors that generally characterize creative people are:
  1. Cognitive Ability: This includes above-average intelligence, the ability to generate new ideas, divergent ideas, and cognitive flexibility.
  2. Open attitude: creative people prepare themselves to receive internal and external stimuli.
  3. Attitudes that are free, autonomous, and self-confident: creative people want to present themselves as best they can and as they wish, they are not bound by conventions. This causes creative people to be often considered "eccentric" or crazy.
DRS. Rakhmat, Jalaluddin, Communication Psychology, Bandung, PT Teen Rosdakarya, 2008
Morrison, M.A. Communication Psychology, Bogor, Ghalia Indonesia, 2010.