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Definition and Theory of Group Communication

Every individual in his life has certain interests and goals that differ from one individual to another. So that with the nature and characteristics of each different individual, of course, it will have great potential if it is realized into a common interest and goal or group.

For this reason, it can be seen that there are various forms of groups that exist today with different interests and goals. The existence of a group is informal. In the life of a group, of course, cannot be separated from the behavior of each individual who is not the same according to his nature as humans. However, behind the differences, there is a great power when it is accumulated into groups. After each individual enters the group's interests and goals, their behavior will become group behavior for togetherness.

Definition and Theory of Group Communication
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A group is a group of people who have a common goal who interact with each other to achieve a common goal, get to know each other, and view themselves as part of the group (Deddy Mulyana, 2005). This group for example is a family, discussion group, problem-solving group, or a committee that is meeting to make a decision. Group communication, also involves interpersonal communication. Therefore, most theories of interpersonal communication apply also to group communication.

Group communication is communication that takes place between several people in a "small" group such as in meetings, meetings, conferences, and so on (Anwar Arifin, 1984). Michael Burgoon (in Wiryanto, 2005) defines group communication as face-to-face interaction between three or more people, with known goals, such as information sharing, self-preservation, and problem-solving, in which members can remember their characteristics of members. others exactly. The two definitions of group communication above have in common, namely the existence of face-to-face communication, more than two communication participants, and having a certain arrangement of work plans to achieve group goals.

Groups and Their Influence on Communication Behavior

Social psychologists are also familiar with fashion. In the 1960s, their main theme was social perception. Over the next decade, this theme faded away. The study of attitude formation and change also has its ups and downs. It was in vogue until the 1950s, faded in the following decade, and became popular again in the late 1970s. So are group studies. In the 1940s when the world was engulfed in war, the group became the center of attention. after the war, attention turned to the individual and this persisted into the mid-1970s. In the late 1970s, renewed interest in group studies grew and, as Steiner (1974) predicted, became dominant in the mid-1980s. Educators see group communication as an effective educational method. Managers find group communication as the right place to generate creative ideas. Psychiatrists find group communication as a vehicle for renewing mental health. Ideologists also view group communication as a means of increasing ideological-political awareness. This high interest has confirmed our knowledge of various types of groups and the influence of groups on our behavior.

Group Formation Theories

Several theories can be put forward regarding the formation of groups, namely:

1. Proximity theory

A very basic theory about the formation of this group is to explain the existence of affiliations among certain people. This theory is called Propinquity or proximity theory. The meaning of this proximity theory is that a person relates to other people because of the proximity of space and area.

2. Interaction Theory

A more comprehensive theory of group formation is a theory that comes from George Homans. The theory is based on activities, interactions, and sentiments (feelings or emotions).

These three elements are directly related to each other and can be explained as follows:
  1. The more activities a person engages in with other people, the more diverse his interactions and the stronger their sentiments grow.
  2. The more interactions between people, the more likely the activities and sentiments are transmitted to others.
  3. The more activities and sentiments are transmitted to others, the more one's sentiments are understood by others, and the more possibilities for transmitting activities and interactions.

3. Theory of Balance (Theodore Newcomb)

One theory that is somewhat comprehensive in its explanation of group formation is a balance theory of group information. This theory states that someone's interest in another is based on the similarity of attitudes in responding to a goal (Vethzal Rivai and Deddy Mulyadi. 2012).

Arifin, Anwar, 1984, Communication Strategy: A Brief Introduction, Bandung: Amico.
Mulyana, Deddy, 2005, Communication Studies: An Introduction, Bandung: PT Pemuda Rosdakarya.
Rakhmat, Jalaluddin, 1994, Communication Psychology, Bandung: Rosdakarya Youth.