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12 General Principles of Effective Communication

Through this article, it is hoped that they will be aware and know that in communicating with other people, they know that there are basic principles that must be known and adhered to. With this knowing and awareness that in communicating there are basic principles that he must adhere to.

12 Principles of Communication

Humans in communicating and interacting between them and so that the communication they do can run and work well, then among they must understand and understand the principles of good communication. Otherwise, they will not be able to expect that the communication they are doing can work well.

12 General Principles of Effective Communication.
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1. The first principle of communication is: Communication is a symbolic process.

Humans in communicating with other humans will use symbols/symbols and the symbol itself is arbitrary/arbitrary.

In their communication activities, they consciously or uncertainly use a lot of symbols/symbols in their communication even though the symbols they use are arbitrary. It is said arbitrary/arbitrarily because the communicators can make anything as a symbol depending on their mutual agreement. Symbols have no meaning because it is we / the communicators themselves who give meaning to the symbols they use. The symbols/symbols vary from culture to culture.

The symbol/symbol is divided into 2 (two), namely:
Concrete symbols/symbols, symbols/symbols that represent an object.
Abstract symbols/symbols, symbols/symbols that represent an idea or thought.

2. The second principle of communication is: Every behavior has communication potential.

Humans in communicating can be sure to carry out all their body's potential, either directly or indirectly, and whether intentional or unintentional. Therefore it is said that humans in communicating always use all the potential they have both verbally and non-verbally.

Every movement of the human body contains various hidden meanings. Is it happy, happy, sad, angry, and so on.

Therefore, in communication, both the sender of the message or the communicator and the recipient of the message or the communicant must be very aware of whether the meaning of the message they convey has the same meaning as the communicant because the potential they convey is interpreted the same.

Body language is communication that uses the movements or positions of the human body,

Silence is communication. A silent person has inadvertently sent a message to another person that that person can interpret that maybe he is angry, lazy, or something else.

3. The third principle of communication is that communication has a content dimension and a relationship dimension.

In the communication process between one or more people who communicate, the communication they do has dimensions of content and relationship dimensions.

The content dimension is coded verbally while the relationship dimension is coded non-verbally.

The content dimension shows the charge (content) of communication, namely what is said.

The relationship dimension shows how to say it (non-verbal message), what kind of channel, and how to say it.

4. The fourth principle of communication is: Communication takes place on a deliberate basis.

Communication takes place in varying degrees of intent, from completely unintentional communication (spontaneous-meeting people) to truly planned and conscious communication.

We can control others to interpret or not interpret our behavior.

5. The fifth principle of communication is: Communication occurs in the context of space and time.

The meaning of messages that occur in communication depends on the physical context, space (place, region, country, class, etc.), time (receiving calls at night, etc.), social (intercultural communication), and psychological (human mental condition, happy). , stress, etc.).

Context of space, Wearing a redshirt at a funeral is not polite because it sends a message that we are not sorry.

In the context of time, the telephone ringing at night will be perceived differently from the telephone ringing during the day.

6. The sixth communication principle is: Communication involves predicting the participants of the communication.

Communication is also bound by rules/etiquette.

We can predict the communication behavior of others based on their social roles.

Who are we talking to and what are our attitudes?

7. The seventh principle of communication is: Communication is systemic.

At least two basic systems operate in communication transactions, namely internal systems, and external systems.

The internal system is also called the frame of reference, the field of experience, mindset, and attitude.

The external system consists of elements in the environment outside the individual, such as our homes, schools, and workplaces.

8. The eighth communication principle is The more similar the socio-cultural background, the more effective the communication.

Effective communication is communication that results in following the expectations of the participants. In reality, there are never two humans who are exactly alike, however, similarities in certain things, such as religion, race/ethnicity, language, education level, or economic level will encourage people to be attracted to each other because of these similarities so that communication becomes more meaningful. effective.

Example: Andi has a new friend in the same faculty and they happen to live in the same boarding house. At first, they met each other, looked at each other, and then greeted each other. Then they chat with each other and in short, they open up to each other about their respective lives, ranging from hobbies, habits, intimacy in their families, their tribes, and so on so that they become close friends.

9. The ninth communication principle is: Communication is non-sequential.

The communication process is not patterned rigidly (linear or secondary) but is a random order.

10. The tenth communication principle is: Communication is processual, dynamic, and transactional.

Communication participants are constantly changing. The communication process as a transaction is a process of encoding (encoding) and decoding (decoding).

Processual is the process of exchange between individuals through the same system of symbols. The process of changing the behavior of others (Hovland).

So communication is a social process in which individuals use symbols to create and interpret meaning in their environment.

So in the perspective of communication, the process is a continuous event and has no end.

In transactional communication, people build a common meaning, sender and receiver are equally responsible for the impact and effectiveness of the communication that occurs.

11. The eleventh principle of communication is: Communication is irreversible.

Like the sentence to forgive but not forget. So be careful in communicating and speaking because what we have said may be revoked and forgiven but will never be forgotten.

So in communicating, once we send a message, we cannot control the effect of the message, let alone eliminate the effect of the message.

This communication principle makes us aware that we must be careful when talking to other people or for things that we do not know for sure it is better to keep silent.

Isn't silence golden?

12. The twelfth communication principle is: Communication is not a means to solve some problems.

Many problems and conflicts between people are caused by communication. However, communication itself is not a panacea (panacea) for resolving problems or conflicts, because these problems or conflicts may be related to structural problems. For communication to be effective, structural constraints must be taken seriously.

Panacea = panacea. The point is, do not make communication the main tool to solve problems. For example: even though the government is trying hard to establish good communication with the Acehnese, it will not succeed if the government treats the people in these areas unfairly, by taking their natural resources and transporting them to the center.

So that is articles about the 12 General Principles of Effective Communication. Hopefully, this article can be useful for all of us.

Extracted from the main reference sources:
Devito, Joseph A., Human Communication, e.d. 5th, professional books, 1997
Mulyana, Deddy, Communication science an introduction, P.T. Rosdakarja Youth, Bandung, 2000.